Carbon compositions and VOCs emission characteristics of civil combustion fuels
LIU Ya-nan1, ZHONG Lian-hong2, YAN Jing2, HAN Li-hui1, XUE Chen-li3
1. Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China;
2. Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100037, China;
3. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
The typical biomass fuels in Beijing (made of corn cob, corn stalks, soybean stalks, straw stalks, pine, chestnut branches, peach branches) and civil coal (bituminous coal, honeycomb coal) were selected and combustion experiments were simulated in the laboratory. After collecting particulate matters and gas samples from combustion, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in different particle size fractions of particulate matter were measured by Model 2001A Thermal/Photocarbon Analyzer, and the VOCs in combustion flue gas were analyzed with Agilent GC-MS 5977/7890B GC-MS as well. The results showed that for honeycomb coal, the emission factor of OC and EC reached the maximum with the particle size of 2.5~10μm, for all the other 8solid fuels, the emission factor of OC and EC were maximum with the particle size of 0~2.5μm. The composition of VOCs from the combustion of these three types of fuels, firewood (chestnut branches, peach branches and pine), straw (corn cob, corn stalks, soybean stalks, straw stalks) and civil coal (honeycomb and bituminous coal), are quite different. The mass fractions of halogenated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organic matter emitted from firewood and civil coal combustion are significantly higher than that from straw type fuels. Within each fuel, VOCs composition is relatively similar. The average total VOCs emission factor was 2.02g/kg for the firewood type, 6.89g/kg for the straws, and 2.03g/kg for the civil coals. VOCs from corn cob, corn stalk, soybean and straw stem have higher ozone formation potential than that from chestnut, peach, pine, bituminous and honeycomb, nonetheless, the composition was similar among the latter group. The VOCs, such as Alkenes, alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons from solid fuel combustion, were big contributors to the ozone formation potential.
田贺忠,赵丹,王艳.中国生物质燃烧大气污染物排放清单[J]. 环境科学学报, 2011,31(2):349-357. Tian H Z, Zhao D, Wang Y. Emission inventories of atmospheric pollutants discharged from biomass burning in China[J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2011,31(2):349-357.
张宜升,张厚勇,栾胜基,等.生物质露天焚烧及家庭燃用的多环芳烃排放特征研究[J]. 中国环境科学, 2015,35(2):387-395. Zhang Y S, Zhang H Y, Luan S J, et al. Emission characteristics of PAHs from open and residential biomass burning[J]. China Environmental Science, 2015,35(2):387-395.
李云婷,王占山,安欣欣,等.2015年"十一"期间北京市大气重污染过程分析[J]. 中国环境科学, 2016,36(11):3218-3226. Li Y T, Wang Z S, An X X, et al. Analysis on a heavy air pollution process in Beijing during National Day holiday, 2015[J]. China Environmental Science, 2016,36(11):3218-3226.
沈潇雨,郭照冰,姜文娟,等.生物质室内燃烧产物的碳质特征及EC同位素组成[J]. 中国环境科学, 2017,37(10):3669-3674. Shen X Y, Guo Z B, Jiang W J, et al. Carbon characteristics and elemental carbon isotopic compositions in biomass indoor combustion products[J]. China Environmental Science, 2017, 37(10):3669-3674.
刘海利,彭林,张腾,等.农林生物质燃烧尘中碳组分与水溶性无机离子的分布特征[J]. 环境工程学报, 2017,3(11):1672-1676. Liu H L, Peng L, Zhang T, et al. Distribution of carbon components and water-soluble inorganic ions in biomass burning dust[J]. Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2017,3(11):1672-1676.
Wei W, Wang SX, Chatani S, et al. Emission and speciation of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from anthropogenic sources in China[J]. Atmospheric Environment 2008,42(20):4976-4988.
DB 11/097-2014低硫散煤及制品[S]. DB 11/097-2014 Low sulfur coal and its products[S].
张琦,李庆,蒋靖坤,等.一套民用固体燃料燃烧大气污染物排放测试系统的搭建和评测[J]. 环境科学学报, 2016,36(9):3393-3399. Zhang Q, Li Q, Jiang J K, et al. A measurement system to characterize air pollutant emissions from residential solid fuel combustion[J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2016,36(9):3393-3399.
刘源,张元勋,魏永杰,等.民用燃煤含碳颗粒物的排放因子测量[J]. 环境科学学报, 2007,27(9):1409-1416. Liu Y, Zhang Y X, Wei Y J, et al. Measurement of emission factors of carbonaceous aerosols from residential coal combustion[J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2007,27(9):1409-1416.
Barletta B, Meinardi S, Sherwood Rowland F, et al. Volatile organic compounds in 43 Chinese cities[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2005, 39(32):5979-5990.
Liu Y, Shao M, Zhang J, et al. Distributions and source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing City, China[J].Journal of Environmental Science and Health (Part A), 2005,40(10):1843-1860.
范志威.煤燃烧过程中有机污染物的赋存及排放特性的研究[D]. 杭州:浙江大学, 2005. Fan Z W. Study on forms and emission characteristics of organic pollutants during coal combustion[D]. Hangzhou:Zhejiang University, 2005.
李兴华,王书肖,郝吉明.民用生物质燃烧挥发性有机化合物排放特征[J]. 环境科学, 2011,32(12):3515-3521. Li X H, Wang S X, Hao J M. Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Emitted from Biofuel Combustion in China[J]. Environmental Science, 2011,32(12):3515-3521.
Wang S X, Wei W, Du L, et al. Characteristics of gaseous pollutants from biofuel-stoves in rural China[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2009,43(27):4148-4154.
Carter, W P L. Development of ozone reactivity scales for volatile organic compounds[J]. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 1994,44:881-899.
胡高硕,徐永福,贾龙.烟雾箱模拟丙烯-NOx的大气光化学反应[J]. 化学学报, 2011,69(14):1593-1600. Hu G S, Xu Y F, Jia L. Smog Chamber Simulation of Atmospheric Photochemical Reactions of Propene and NOx[J]. Acta Chimica Sinica, 2011,69(14):1593-1600.
苏雷燕,赵明,李岩,等.环境空气中挥发性有机物(VOCs)光化学行为的研究进展[J]. 绿色科技, 2013,11:178-182. Su L Y, Zhao M, Li Y, et al. Progress in photochemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air[J]. Journal of Green Science and Technology, 2013,11:178-182.