Evolution of PM2.5 and its components during heavy pollution episodes in winter in Beijing
ZHANG Meng1, HAN Li-hui1, LIU Bao-xian2,3, WANG Qin3, CAO Yang3
1. Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China; 2. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 3. Beijing Key Laboratory of Airborne Particulate Matter Monitoring Technology, Beijing Municipal Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100048, China
Abstract：In this study, the mass concentrations of PM2.5, water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43-), carbonaceous components (organic carbon OC, element carbon EC) and gaseous pollutants, and meteorological elements were monitored in real time in Beijing urban area from November 27, 2018 to January 15, 2019. At the same time, the concentrations of PM2.5, its major water-soluble ion components and carbonaceous components in winters from 1999 to 2018 in Beijing, were collected to analyze their variation characteristics. The evolutions of PM2.5 and its components in the clean days and two typical heavy pollution processes during the monitoring period were mainly discussed. The results showed that the average mass concentration of PM2.5 during the study period was 53.5μg/m3, almost lower than those in winters in Beijing since 1999, and the main atmospheric pollution sources displayed a significant change from traditional soot-type pollution source to both coal-fired and motor vehicle exhaust-type pollution sources. High relative humidity, and weak southwest wind were favorable for the formation of heavy pollution. The average concentrations of PM2.5 during the clean days, pollution episode I and II were 32.5, 138.9, and 146.8μg/m3, respectively. The diurnal profiles of PM2.5 were different in the different periods. The ion concentrations presented the order of NO3- > NH4+ > SO42- > Cl- > K+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > PO43- > F- > NO2-~Mg2+, and their mean total concentration was 24.6μg/m3, accounting for 46.0% of PM2.5, of which SNA was the most important component, accounting for 83.7% of the total water-soluble ions. The concentrations of carbonaceous composition reached the lowest value in winters in Beijing since 1999, and followed the order of primary organic carbon POC > EC > secondary organic carbon SOC, and the correlation coefficient between OC and EC was 0.99, indicating that the primary combustion source had a greater contribution to atmospheric pollution. NH4+ was enriched in PM2.5 during the clean days and pollution II, and existed mainly in the form of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3 and NH4Cl, but lower in pollution I, and existed only as (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. During the periods of pollution I and II, the formation of SO42- was mainly affected by relative humidity and NH3during the daytime and nighttime, however, the formation of NO3- was mainly affected by O3 and NH3 during the daytimee, and by relative humidity and NH3 during the nighttime.
张蒙, 韩力慧, 刘保献, 王琴, 曹阳. 北京市冬季重污染期间PM2.5及其组分演变特征[J]. 中国环境科学, 2020, 40(7): 2829-2838.
ZHANG Meng, HAN Li-hui, LIU Bao-xian, WANG Qin, CAO Yang. Evolution of PM2.5 and its components during heavy pollution episodes in winter in Beijing. CHINA ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCECE, 2020, 40(7): 2829-2838.
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