Risk assessment and application of heavy metal exposure of waterbirds in Caohai Wetland, Guizhou Province, China
HU Yuan1,2, HU Can-shi1,3, ZHANG Ming-ming1,2, SU Hai-jun1,2
1. College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China; 2. Research Center for Biodiversity and Nature Conservation, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China; 3. College of Life Science, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
Abstract：A comprehensive exposure risk model was used to evaluate the heavy metal exposure risk of waterbirds in Caohai Wetland in Guizhou Province, and the spatial distribution of exposure risk was determined as well based on the inverse distance weight interpolation method and layers overlay analysis. The mean contents of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in the soil of Caohai waterbirds habitats were greater than those of the soil background values in Guizhou Province. The contents of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn were at pollution levels in the four habitat plants including grassland, ditch, shallow swamp, and cultivated land. Moreover, As and Pb in the fishes, which are diet of waterbirds in the habitats, exceeded the allowed risk standards. The exposure risks of waterbirds towards Cr, Pb and Zn varied with the foraging behaviors and ways of feeding. According to the diet-representative waterbird species habited in Caohai, Pb showed highest exposure risk to Anas acuta and Anser indicus in the plant-feeding route and to Egretta garzetta in the soil-related feeding route. Cr showed high exposure risk to three representative species of waterbirds in the soil-related feeding route. Zn mainly showed high exposure risk to Egretta garzetta and Anser indicus in the meat-related feeding route. The comprehensive assessment showed that the potential risk of heavy metal hazards toward Egretta garzetta (represented as carnivore species) and Anas acuta (represented as herbivore species) were both at high level, while that the Anser indicus (represented as omnivory species) was at moderate level. In addition, from the perspective of potential hazard risk of waterbirds habitat area, four areas such as Shuanghe, Huyelin, Wangjiayuanzhi and the surrounding area of Weining County Town have high potential risk of heavy metal pollution. Therefore, it is suggested to pay more attention on monitoring the health of carnivorous waterbird communities. Cr, Pb and Zn heavy metal pollutants and high potential pollution areas abatement should be a top priority through scientifically and reasonably measures to restrict human activities and control the pollutions near Caohai.
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HU Yuan, HU Can-shi, ZHANG Ming-ming, SU Hai-jun. Risk assessment and application of heavy metal exposure of waterbirds in Caohai Wetland, Guizhou Province, China. CHINA ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCECE, 2021, 41(10): 4770-4781.
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