Abstract：Three direct-injection gasoline vehicles meeting China-6 emission standard were selected for cold start WLTC tests. The emission characteristics of solid particles above 23nm and particles containing volatile/semi-volatile components above 6nm were measured on the three vehicles. The test results showed that particles containing volatile/semi-volatile components in the particle size range of 6~30nm were mainly produced in the WLTC cycle deceleration condition, high-speed section, and ultra-high-speed section. Volatile/semi-volatile particles in the particle size range of 30~2500nm were mainly produced in the ultra-high-speed section. Solid particles above 23nm accounted for the bulk of the emissions in the rest conditions. GPF had limited effectiveness in intercepting particles in the 6~30nm particle size range. Moreover, GPF regeneration produced high concentrations of particles in the range of 6~30nm. Analysis of the carbonaceous composition of particles showed that volatile/semi-volatile particles had little effect on PN emissions of solid particles above 23nm measured by the emission regulation but had a significant impact on PM emissions.
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