Abstract：Emissions were produced inevitably in the process of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), resulting in deterioration in environmental quality in the NIMBY area. In order to better assess the impact of emissions dispersion, an environmental risk assessment model for waste incineration was built, based on quantitative scoping method of NIMBY area. Assessment criteria for incineration risk acceptability were provided as RA ≤ RA*, RB ≤ RA* respectively. Based on a case study of a MSWI in Zhejiang province during the operating periods of 2015-07-31~2016-08-01, environmental risk of incineration was estimated. The estimation revealed that:(1) The concentrations of particulate matters and acid gases (SO2, HCl) were 51.9% and 76.5% higher than the limit in spring and summer; and 54.9% and 67.6% higher respectively in autumn and winter. Risk level was RBSSW=1.93×10-3≈1.5RASSW*, RBN=4.18×10-3≈1.4RAN*. Under the different monsoon (SSW, N), the risk level RB was both above RA* averagely. (2) For controlling RA, the optimal acceptable risk level for emissions could be achieved for the enterprise within an acceptable economic cost, based on six combinations of flue gas purification process and the estimation on △c(investment). For controlling RB, the operation of half dry desulfurization tower and bag-type dust collector should be management carefully, and maintenance for each failure events should be carried out timely.
朱阳光, 杨洁, 乔萌萌, 周芮, 毛嘉玲, 杨成. 基于HRA的邻避区域焚烧污染风险评估[J]. 中国环境科学, 2017, 37(12): 4790-4800.
ZHU Yang-guang, YANG Jie, QIAO Meng-meng, ZHOU Rui, MAO Jia-ling, YANG Cheng. Environmental risk assessment study on waste incineration for Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY)area based on HRA method. CHINA ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCECE, 2017, 37(12): 4790-4800.
Bretzel F, Calderisi M. Contribution of a municipal solid waste incinerator to the trace metals in the surrounding soil[J]. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2011,182(1):523-533.
Koehler A, Peyer F, Salzmann C, et al. Probabilistic and technology-specific modeling of emissions from municipal solid-waste incineration[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2011,45(8):3487-3495.
Rimmer D L, Vizard C G, Pless-mulloli T, et al. Metal contamination of urban soils in the vicinity of a municipal waste incinerator:one source among many[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2006,356:207-216.
Hu X, Zhang Y, Ding Z, et al. Bioaccessibility and health risk of arsenic and heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) in TSP and PM2.5 in Nanjing, China[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2012,57(12):146-152.
Karlsson K, Viklander M, Scholes L, et al. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010,178:612-618.
Zheng N, Liu J, Wang Q, et al. Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2010, 408(4):726-733.
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for chemical process quantitative risk analysis[M]. 2nd ed. New York:American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2000:395-455.
Ugurlu O, Kose E, Yildirim U, et al. Marine accident analysis for collision and grounding in oil tanker using FTA method[J]. Maritime Policy & Management, 2015,42(2):163-185.
Domingo J L, Rovira J, Vilavert L, et al. Health risks for the population living in the vicinity of an integrated waste management facility:screening environment pollutants[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2015,519(3):363-370.
Morselli L, Robertis C D, Luzi J, et al. Environmental impacts of waste incineration in a regional system (Emilia Romagna, Italy) evaluated from a life cycle perspective[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008,159:505-511.
Udomsri S, Martin A R, Fransson T H. Economic assessment and energy model scenarios of municipal solid waste incineration and gas turbine hybrid dual-fueled cycles in Thailand[J]. Waste Management, 2010,30(7):1414-1422.
Mochungong P. Assessing health risks from sub-standard medical waste incineration:a site conceptual model[J]. Human & Ecological Risk Assessment, 2015,21(1):129-134.
Reiley M C. Science, policy, and trends of metals risk assessment at EPA:How understanding metals bioavailability has changed metals risk assessment at US EPA[J]. Aquatic Toxicology, 2007, 84(2):292-298.
Jin Y Q, Liu H M, Li X D, et al. Health risk assessment of PCDD/F emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in China[J]. Environmental Technology, 2012,33(22):2539-2545.
Johnson D R. Nanometer-sized emissions from municipal waste incinerators:a qualitative risk assessment[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2016,320:67-79.
Zhou J Z, Wu S M, Pan Y, et al. Mercury in municipal solids waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China:Chemical speciation and risk assessment[J]. Fuel, 2015,158:619-624.
Kao W Y, Ma H W, Wang L C, et al. Site-specific health risk assessment of dioxins and furans in an industrial region with numerous emission sources[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2007,30:471-481.
Carruthers D J, Seaton M D, Mchugh C A, et al. Comparison of the complex terrain algorithms incorporated into two commonly used local-scale Air Pollution Dispersion Models (ADMS and AERMOD) using a hybrid model[J]. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 2011,61(11):1227-1235.
Vassura I, Passarini F, Ferroni L, et al. PCDD/Fs atmosphere deposition fluxes and soil contamination close to a municipal solid waste incinerator[J]. Chemosphere, 2011,83:1360-1373.
Basham J P, Whitwell I. Dispersion modeling of dioxin releases from the waste incinerator at Avonmouth, Bristol, UK[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 1999,33:3405-3416.
Ma X J, Jiang X G, Jin Y Q, et al. Dispersion modeling and health risk assessment of dioxin emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator in Hangzhou, China[J]. Applied Physics & Engineering, 2012,13(1):69-78.
Chiueh, P T, Lo S L, Chang C L. A GIS-based system for allocating municipal solid waste incinerator compensatory fund[J]. Waste Management, 2008,28(12):2690-2701.
Chang, N B, Chang Y H, Chen H W. Fair fund distribution for a municipal incinerator using GIS-based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process[J]. Journal of Environmental Management, 2009,90(1):441-454.
Ma H W. Using stochastic risk assessment in setting information priorities for managing dioxin impact from a municipal waste incinerator[J]. Chemosphere, 2002,48(10):1035-1040.
Lee S J, Choi S D, Jin G Z, et al. Assessment of PCDD/F risk after implementation of emission reduction at a MSWI[J]. Chemosphere, 2007,68(1):856-863.
Mari M, Nadal M, Ferré-Huguet N, et al. Monitoring PCDD/Fs in soil and herbage samples collected near a hazardous waste incinerator:health risks for the pollution living nearby[J]. Human & Ecological Risk Assessment, 2007,13(6):1255-1270.
IARC. Monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans[EB/OL]. http://monograph.iarc.fr/.2013-06-07.
Vilavert L, Nadal M, Schuhmacher M, et al. Concentrations of metals in soils in the neighborhood of a hazardous waste incinerator:assessment of the temporal trends[J]. Biological Trace Element Research, 2012,149(3):435-442.
US EPA. Soil screening guidance:technical background document[M]. Washington D.C:Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Respond, 1996:21-22.
Du Y R, Gao B, Zhou H D, et al. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in road dusts in urban parks of Beijing, China[J]. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2013,18:299-309.
杭州市统计局.杭州市统计年鉴[M]. 北京:中国统计出版社, 2016.
Federico C, Gianluca I, Lorenzo L, et al. Health risk assessment of air emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant-a case study[J]. Waste Management, 2008,28(1):885-895.
IRIS. Integrated risk information system[EB/OL]. http://www.epa.gov/iris,2015.
Rabl A, Spadaro J V, Mcgavran P D. Health risks of air pollution from incinerators:a perspective[J]. Waste Management & Research, 1998,16(4):365-388.
Meneses M, Schuhmacher M, Domingo J L. Health risk assessment of emissions of dioxins and furans from a municipal waste incinerator:comparison with other emission sources[J]. Environmental international, 2004,30(4):481-489.
Government of Japan. Information Brochure on Dioxins[EB/OL]. http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/doxins.Html/1999-2005.