Abstract：Given the advantage of the timing of glacial retreated regions, we systematically studied centennial trends of lead (Pb) to demonstrate the sources, accumulation, distribution, and atmospheric deposition in the terrestrial ecosystem of glacial retreated regions, eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We comprehensively determined the concentration of lead and other trace elements in soil and vegetation of glacier retreated regions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and quantified the temporal patterns of lead concentration and storage, and then analyzed the potential sources by principal component analysis (PCA), and finally estimated the accumulation rate of historical lead deposition in soils. The results showed that the atmospheric deposition of lead mainly accumulated in O-horizon, and both lead concentration and storage in O-horizon increased with the time of glacier retreated. This suggests that forest soils act as an important atmospheric lead sink in the terrestrial ecosystems. For the aboveground component of vegetations, the lead concentration in branches and barks were the highest, while the lead concentration in trunk was the lowest. The Pb pool size of vegetation showed a positive correlation with the vegetation biomass production. More in detail, the vegetation had the higher uptake rate of lead during the growth period, while decreased distinctly during the old period time. Briefly, the Pb mass in the whole ecosystems increased with the increasing retreated time, and reached the plateau in 1936spruce top community sampling site. The PCA results displayed that 57% of lead in organic soil was derived from the atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic Pb. Further back trajectories analysis suggested that Southwest China and South Asia (India, Bangladesh, etc.) are the main potential sources of lead in Gongga Mountain. Finally, we estimated the centennial average of accumulative rate of lead deposition from atmospheric sources in the glacial retreat area was (8.87±3.55) mg/(m2·a), significantly lower than values in the economically developed regions of China. Overall, our study provides a typical example and data basis for exploring the source, distribution, and accumulation of lead in terrestrial ecosystems, and contributes to understand the impact of future global changes on Pb biogeochemical cycling.
陈霈嘉, 王训, 王定勇. 典型冰川退缩区铅的来源、累积及历史沉降——以青藏高原海螺沟冰川退缩区为例[J]. 中国环境科学, 2021, 41(8): 3704-3713.
CHEN Pei-jia, WANG Xun, WANG Ding-yong. Lead sources, accumulation and historical deposition in typical glacial retreat area: A case study of Hailuogou glacial retreat area, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. CHINA ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCECE, 2021, 41(8): 3704-3713.
Chen H, Teng Y, Lu S, et al. Contamination features and health risk of soil heavy metals in China[J]. Science of the total environment, 2015, 512:143-153.
Soriano A, Pallarés S, Pardo F, et al. Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialised area[J]. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 2012,113:36-44.
Luo J, Tang R, Sun S, et al. Lead distribution and possible sources along vertical zone spectrum of typical ecosystems in the Gongga Mountain, eastern Tibetan Plateau[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2015,115:132-140.
Bing H, Wu Y, Zhou J, et al. Atmospheric deposition of lead in remote high mountain of eastern Tibetan Plateau, China[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2014,99:425-435.
Wang X, Luo J, Yuan W, et al. Global warming accelerates uptake of atmospheric mercury in regions experiencing glacier retreat[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020,117(4):2049-2055.
杨丹丹,罗辑,佘佳,等.贡嘎山海螺沟冰川退缩区原生演替序列植被生物量动态[J]. 生态环境学报, 2015,24(11):1843-1850. YANG Dandan, LUO Ji, SHE Jia, et al. Dynamics of vegetation biomass along the chronosequence in Hailuogou glacier retreated area, Mt. Gongga[J]. Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2015,24(11):1843-1850.
Zhou J, Wu Y, Prietzel J, et al. Changes of soil phosphorus speciation along a 120-year soil chronosequence in the Hailuogou glacier retreat area (Gongga Mountain, SW China)[J]. Geoderma, 2013,195:251-259.
Schweizer S A, Hoeschen C, Schlüter S, et al. Rapid soil formation after glacial retreat shaped by spatial patterns of organic matter accrual in microaggregates[J]. Global change biology, 2018,24(4):1637-1650.
Luo J, Li W, She J, et al. Carbon dynamics in different primary succession stages on Hailuogou Glacier forehead in mount Gongga[J]. Mountain Research, 2017,35:629-635.
Sun S Q, Wu Y H, Wang G X, et al. Bryophyte species richness and composition along an altitudinal gradient in Gongga Mountain, China[J]. PloS one, 2013,8(3):e58131.
Wang X, Luo J, Lin C J, et al. Elevated cadmium pollution since 1890s recorded by forest chronosequence in deglaciated region of Gongga, China[J]. Environmental Pollution, 2020,260:114082.
张霖琳,王超,刀谞,等.京津冀地区城市环境空气颗粒物及其元素特征分析[J]. 中国环境科学, 2014,34(12):2993-3000. Zhang L, Wang C, Dao X, et al. Characterization of elements in air particulate matters in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megacities, China[J]. China Environmental Science, 2014,34(12):2993-3000.
Wang X, Yuan W, Feng X, et al. Moss facilitating mercury, lead and cadmium enhanced accumulation in organic soils over glacial erratic at Mt. Gongga, China[J]. Environmental Pollution, 2019,254:112974.
Abrahim G M S, Parker R J. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand[J]. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 2008,136(1):227-238.
Larsen R K, Baker J E. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere:a comparison of three methods[J]. Environmental science & technology, 2003,37(9):1873-1881.
Xia X, Yang Z, Cui Y, et al. Soil heavy metal concentrations and their typical input and output fluxes on the southern Song-nen Plain, Heilongjiang Province, China[J]. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 2014,139:85-96.
Dayton E A, Basta N T, Payton M E, et al. Evaluating the contribution of soil properties to modifying lead phytoavailability and phytotoxicity[J]. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry:An International Journal, 2006,25(3):719-725.
戴高乐,侯青叶,杨忠芳,等.洞庭湖平原土壤铅活动性影响因素研究[J]. 现代地质, 2019,33(4):783-793. DAI, HOU Q, YANG Z, et al. Factors affecting mobility of lead in the soils of the Dongting Lake Plain, China[J]. Geoscience, 2019,33(4):783-793.
陈守莉,孙波,王平祖,等.污染水稻土中重金属的形态分布及其影响因素①[J]. 土壤(Soils), 2007,39(3):375-380. Chen S, Sun B, Wang P, et al. Chemical form distribution of heavy metals in polluted paddy soils and its influening factors[J]. Soils, 2007,39(3):375-380.
Cheng H, Li M, Zhao C, et al. Overview of trace metals in the urban soil of 31metropolises in China[J]. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 2014,139:31-52.
Kaste J M, Friedland A J, Stürup S. Using stable and radioactive isotopes to trace atmospherically deposited Pb in montane forest soils[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2003,37(16):3560-3567.
柏建坤,王建力,李潮流,等.藏北可可西里地区土壤元素背景值研究[J]. 环境科学, 2014,35(4):1498-1501. Bai J, Wang J, Li C, et al. Study on soil element background values of the Hoh Xil Area in North Tibet[J]. Environmental Science, 2014, 35(4):1498-1501.
杨安,王艺涵,胡健,等.青藏高原表层土壤重金属污染特征对比分析[C]. 中国矿物岩石地球化学学会第17届学术年会论文摘要集, 2019. Yang A, Wang Y, Hu J, et al. Comparative analysis of heavy metal pollution in surface soil of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[C]//The 17th annual meeting of the Chinese Society of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, 2019.
Steinnes E, Sjøbakk T E, Donisa C, et al. Quantification of pollutant lead in forest soils[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2005,69(5):1399-1404.
Klaminder J, Bindler R, Renberg I. The biogeochemistry of atmospherically derived Pb in the boreal forest of Sweden[J]. Applied Geochemistry, 2008,23(10):2922-2931.
Dawson J J C, Tetzlaff D, Carey A M, et al. Characterizing Pb mobilization from upland soils to streams using 206Pb/207Pb isotopic ratios[J]. Environmental science & technology, 2010,44(1):243-249.
柳检.典型富集植物对铅的吸收和耐受机制研究[D]. 北京:中国地质科学院, 2019. Liu J. Dissertation Submitted to Chinese academy of geological sciences for doctoral degree[D]. Beijing:Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 2019.
Gill R A, Jackson R B. Global patterns of root turnover for terrestrial ecosystems[J]. The New Phytologist, 2000,147(1):13-31.
Meyers D E R, Auchterlonie G J, Webb R I, et al. Uptake and localisation of lead in the root system of Brassica juncea[J]. Environmental Pollution, 2008,153(2):323-332.
周芙蓉.侧柏和国槐对干旱和铅胁迫的耐性及对铅污染土壤的修复[D]. 杨凌:西北农业科技大学, 2014. Zhou F. Tolerance of Platycladus orientalis and Sophora japonica to drought, lead stress and restoration of lead-contaminated soil[D]. Yangling:Northwest Agricultural Science and Technology University, 2014.
Liu J, Yin T, Ye N, et al. Transcriptome analysis of the differentially expressed genes in the male and female shrub willows (Salix suchowensis)[J]. PloS One, 2013,8(4):e60181.
Gabarrón M, Zornoza R, Martínez-Martínez S, et al. Effect of land use and soil properties in the feasibility of two sequential extraction procedures for metals fractionation[J]. Chemosphere, 2019,218:266-272.
姜苹红,罗远玲,彭克俭,等.苔藓植物运用于大气重金属污染监测的研究进展[J]. 环境污染与防治, 2015,37(7):82-87. Jiang P, Luo Y, Peng K, et al. Progreaa on the research of bryophytes applied to monitoring of air pollution by heavy metal[J]. Environmental Pollution & Control, 2015,37(7):82-87.
Onianwa P C. Monitoring atmospheric metal pollution:a review of the use of mosses as indicators[J]. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2001,71(1):13-50.
Stanković J D, Sabovljević A D, Sabovljević M S. Bryophytes and heavy metals:a review[J]. Acta Botanica Croatica, 2018,77(2):109-118.
Sun X, Wang G, Wu Y, et al. Hydrologic regime of interception for typical forest ecosystem at subalpine of western Sichuan, China[J]. Shengtai Xuebao/Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2013,33(2):501-508.
Chen H, Teng Y, Lu S, et al. Contamination features and health risk of soil heavy metals in China[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2015, 512:143-153.
苟龙飞,金章东,贺茂勇.锂同位素示踪大陆风化:进展与挑战[J]. 地球环境学报, 2017,8(2):89-102. Gou L, Jin Z, He M. Using lithium isotopes traces continental weathering:Progresses and challenges[J]. Journal of Earth Environment, 2017,8(2):89-102.
Tchounwou P B, Yedjou C G, Patlolla A K, et al. Heavy metal toxicity and the environment[J]. Molecular, Clinical and Environmental toxicology, 2012:133-164.
Callender E. Heavy metals in the environment historical trends[J]. Environmental Geochemistry, 2005,9:67-105.
Francek M A. Soil lead levels in orchards and roadsides of Mission Peninsula, Michigan[J]. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 1997,94(3):373-384.
Rieuwerts J S, Farago M E. Lead contamination in smelting and mining environments and variations in chemical forms and bioavailability[J]. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability, 1995,7(4):113-123.
TYLER G. Bryophytes and heavy metals:a literature review[J]. Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, 1990,104(1-3):231-253.
Begum B A, Kim E, Biswas S K, et al. Investigation of sources of atmospheric aerosol at urban and semi-urban areas in Bangladesh[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2004,38(19):3025-3038.
Salam A, Bauer H, Kassin K, et al. Aerosol chemical characteristics of a mega-city in Southeast Asia (Dhaka-Bangladesh)[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2003,37(18):2517-2528.
Pan Y P, Wang Y S. Atmospheric wet and dry deposition of trace elements at 10 sites in Northern China[J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2015,15(2):951-972.
Okubo A, Takeda S, Obata H. Atmospheric deposition of trace metals to the western North Pacific Ocean observed at coastal station in Japan[J]. Atmospheric Research, 2013,129:20-32.
Sakata M, Tani Y, Takagi T. Wet and dry deposition fluxes of trace elements in Tokyo Bay[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2008,42(23):5913-5922.
Kyllönen K, Karlsson V, Ruoho-Airola T. Trace element deposition and trends during a ten year period in Finland[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2009,407(7):2260-2269.
Motelay-Massei A, Ollivon D, Tiphagne K, et al. Atmospheric bulk deposition of trace metals to the Seine River Basin, France:concentrations, sources and evolution from 1988 to 2001 in Paris[J]. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2005,164(1/4):119-135.
Golomb D, Ryan D, Eby N, et al. Atmospheric deposition of toxics onto Massachusetts Bay-I. Metals[J]. Atmospheric environment, 1997,31(9):1349-1359.
Sweet C W, Weiss A, Vermette S J. Atmospheric deposition of tace metals at three sites near the great lakes[J]. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 1998,103:423-439.
Halstead M J R, Cunninghame R G, Hunter K A. Wet deposition of trace metals to a remote site in Fiordland, New Zealand[J]. Atmospheric environment, 2000,34(4):665-676.
Theodosi C, Stavrakakis S, Koulaki F, et al. The significance of atmospheric inputs of major and trace metals to the Black Sea[J]. Journal of Marine Systems, 2013,109:94-102.