Abstract：In order to explore the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and source on bacterial community structure and diversity, and the role of bacterial community structure in controlling DOM composition and degradation, the fluorescence components and spatial distribution of DOM in Bahe River during dry season (December) were examined using three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). The results showed that the DOM fluorescent components of Bahe River were divided into five components by PARAFAC, including three humus components (C1:240,320/400nm; C2:260~295/478~504nm; C5:240/480nm) and two protein components (C3:240,272~284/350~360nm; C4:255~275/326~336nm). A relatively strong correlation was observed among the five components, respectively. It was shown that these two types of fluorescent components had similar source properties. Proteobacteria (54.22%), Bacteroidetes (19.40%), Firmicutes (12.28%), Cyanobacteria (6.46%) and Actinobacteria (3.13%) were the dominant phylum in Bahe River. The nutrient concentration, water temperature, electrical conductivity and pH of river water had effects on the bacterial community. The correlation between fluorescent components (humic-like and proteinic-like) of DOM and the bacterioplankton community was significant along the longitudinal gradient of the river. Different bacterial communities may have different responses to the quality and instability of DOM, which can provide information on the effects of biogeochemical processes of rivers on the composition and function of the microbial population.
Bai Y, Qi W, Liang J, et al. Using high-throughput sequencing to assess the impacts of treated and untreated wastewater discharge on prokaryotic communities in an urban river[J]. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2014,98:1841-1851.
Akkanen J, Lyytikäinen M, Tuikka A, et al. Dissolved organic matter in pore water of freshwater sediments:effects of separation procedure on quantity, quality and functionality[J]. Chemosphere, 2005,60(11):1608-1615.
Lepane V, Künnis-Beres K, Kaup E, et al. Dissolved organic matter, nutrients, and bacteria in Antarctic soil core from Schirmacher Oasis[J]. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2018,18:2715-2726.
Sulzberger B, Durisch-Kaiser E. Chemical characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM):a prerequisite for understanding UV-induced changes of DOM absorption properties and bioavailability[J]. Aquatic Sciences, 2009,71:104-126.
Ruiz-González C, Niño-García J P, Del Giorgio P A. Terrestrial origin of bacterial communities in complex boreal freshwater networks[J]. Ecology Letters, 2015,18:1198-1206.
Wang L, Zhang J, Li H L, et al. Shift in the microbial community composition of surface water and sediment along an urban river[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2018,627:600-612.
Caporaso J G, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, et al. QⅡME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data[J]. Nature Methods, 2010,7:335-336.
Drury B, Rosi-Marshall E, Kelly J J. Wastewater treatment effluent reduces the abundance and diversity of benthic bacterial communities in urban and suburban rivers[J]. Applied and environmental microbiology, 2013,79:1897-1905.
Ibekwe A M, Map J, Murinda S E. Bacterial community composition and structure in an Urban River impacted by different pollutant sources[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2016,566:1176-1185.
Lundgaard A S B, Treusch A H, et al. Nitrogen cycling and bacterial community structure of sinking and aging diatom aggregates[J]. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 2017,79:85-99.
徐志嫱,刘维,张建丰,等.基于流域不同特征的浐灞河生态系统健康评价[J]. 西北农林科技大学学报(自然科学版), 2011,39(8):215-223. Xu Z Q, Liu W, Zhang J F, et al. Ecosystem health assessment based on the different characteristics of Chanba river basin, Xi'an[J]. Journal of Northwest A & F University (Natural Science Edition), 2011,39(8):215-223.
秦耀民,李怀恩.基于降雨事件监测的非点源污染对灞河水质的影响[J]. 中国环境科学, 2014,34(5):1173-1180. Qin Y M, Li H E. Impact of nonpoint source pollution on water quality of the Bahe River based on rainfall events monitor[J]. China Environmental Science, 2014,34(5):1173-1180.
Jia J, Guan Y J, Cheng M Q, et al. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in Ba River, China[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2018,642:1136-1144.
邢萌,刘卫国.西安浐河、灞河硝酸盐氮同位素特征及污染源示踪探讨[J]. 地球学报, 2008,29(6):783-789. Xing M, Liu W G. Nitrogen Isotopic Characteristics of Nitrate and Contamination Source Tracing of the Chanhe River and the Bahe River in Xi'an[J]. Acta Geoscientia Sinica, 2008,29(6):783-789.
胡胜,曹明明,邱海军,等.CFSR气象数据在流域水文模拟中的适用性评价——以灞河流域为例[J]. 地理学报, 2016,71(9):1571-1586. Hu S, Cao M M, Qiu H J, et al. Applicability evaluation of CFSR climate data for hydrologic simulation:A case study in the Bahe River Basin[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2016,71(9):1571-1586.
国家环境保护总局.水和废水监测分析方法[M]. 北京:中国环境科学出版社, 2002:88-284. The State Environmental Protection Administration. Water and wastewater monitoring and analysis method[M]. Beijing:China Environmental Science Press, 2002:88-284.
Hosen J D, Mcdonough O T, Febria C M, et al. Dissolved Organic Matter Quality and Bioavailability Changes Across an Urbanization Gradient in Headwater Streams[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014,48(14):7817-7824.
Liu T, Zhang A N, Wang J W, et al. Integrated biogeography of planktonic and sedimentary bacterial communities in the Yangtze River[J]. Microbiome, 2018,6(16):2-14.
Shan J, Ji R, Yu Y, et al. Biochar, activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes have different effects on fate of 14C-catechol and microbial community in soil[J]. Scientific Reports, 2015,5:16000.
Wünsch, Urban, Murphy K, Stedmon C A. The One-Sample PARAFAC Approach Reveals Molecular Size Distributions of Fluorescent Components in Dissolved Organic Matter[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2017,51:11900-11908.
Ejarque E, Freixa A, Vazquez E, et al. Quality and reactivity of dissolved organic matter in a Mediterranean river across hydrological and spatial gradients[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2017,599-600:1802-1812.
甘淑钗,吴莹,鲍红艳,等.长江溶解有机质三维荧光光谱的平行因子分析[J]. 中国环境科学, 2013,33(6):1045-1052. Gan S C, Wu Y, Bao H Y, et al. Characterization of DOM (dissolved organic matter) in Yangtze River using 3-D fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis[J]. China Environmental Science, 2013, 33(6):1045-1052.
梁俭,江韬,魏世强,等.夏、冬季降雨中溶解性有机质(DOM)光谱特征及来源辨析[J]. 环境科学, 2015,36(3):888-897. Liang J, Jiang T, Wei S Q, et al. Absorption and Fluorescence Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in Rainwater and Sources Analysis in Summer and Winter Season[J]. Environmental Science, 2015,36(3):888-897.
Caporaso J G, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, et al. QⅡME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data[J]. Nature Methods, 2010,7(5):335-336.
Yang X F, Zhou Z B, Raju M N, et al. Selective elimination of chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant[J]. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2017:150-161.
Stedmon C A, Markager S. Resolving the variability in dissolved organic matter fluorescence in a temperate estuary and its catchment using PARAFAC analysis[J]. Limnology and Oceanography, 2005,50:686-697.
Hur J, Cho J. Prediction of BOD, COD, and total nitrogen concentrations in a typical urban river using a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix with PARAFAC and UV absorption indices[J]. Sensors, 2012,12:972-986.
王福利,郭卫东.秋季南海珠江口和北部湾溶解有机物的光降解[J]. 环境科学学报, 2010,30(3):606-613. Wang F L, Guo W D. Photodegradation of DOM in the Pearl River Estuary and the Beibu Gulf of the South China Sea in Autumn[J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2010,30(3):606-613.
Hudson N, Baker A, Reynolds D. Fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic matter in natural, waste and polluted waters-a review[J]. River research and applications, 2007,23(6):631-649.
Ishii S K L, Boyer T H. Behavior of Reoccurring PARAFAC Components in Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural and Engineered Systems:A Critical Review[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2012,46:2006-2017.
薛银刚,刘菲,孙萌,等.太湖竺山湾春季浮游细菌群落结构及影响因素[J]. 环境科学, 2018,39(3):1151-1158. Xue Y G, Liu F, Sun M, et al. Community Structure and Influencing Factors of Bacterioplankton in Spring in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu[J]. Environmental Science, 2018,39(3):1151-1158.
Amato K R, Yeoman C J, Kent A, et al. Habitat degradation impacts black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) gastrointestinal microbiomes[J]. The ISME Journal, 2013,7(7):1344-1353.
Sun F L, Wang Y S, Wu M L. Spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community structure in the sediments of the Pearl River estuary[J]. Biologia, 2011,66(4):574-584.
Kirchman D L, Dittel A I, Findlay S E G, et al. Changes in bacterial activity and community structure in response to dissolved organic matter in the Hudson River, New York[J]. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 2004,35:243-257.
Kolmakova O V, Gladyshev M I, Rozanov A S, et al. Spatial biodiversity of bacteria along the largest Arctic river determined by next-generation sequencing[J]. Fems microbiology ecology, 2014,89:442-450.
Xia N, Xia X, Liu T, et al. Characteristics of bacterial community in the water and surface sediment of the Yellow River, China, the largest turbid river in the world[J]. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2014, 14(11):1894-1904.
唐婧,徐小蓉,商传禹,等.南明河城区河段细菌多样性与环境因子的关系[J]. 微生物学报, 2015,55(8):1050-1059. Tang Q, Xu X R, Shang C Y, et al. Association of bacterial diversity in city area of Nanming river with environmental factors[J]. Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 2015,55(8):1050-1059.
王鹏,陈波,李传琼,等.赣江南昌段丰水期细菌群落特征[J]. 中国环境科学, 2016,36(8):2453-2462. Wang P, Chen B, Li C Q, et al. Bacterial communities in Nanchang section of the Ganjiang River in wet season[J]. China Environmental Science, 2016,36(8):2453-2462.
Read D S, Gweon H S, Bowes M J, et al. Catchment-scale biogeography of riverine bacterioplankton[J]. The ISME Journal, 2015,9(2):516-526.
刘君政,王鹏,肖汉玉,等.城市河流细菌群落特征及影响因素——以鄱阳湖流域赣江南昌段为例[J]. 湖泊科学, 2018,30(3):741-752. Liu J Z, Wang P, Xiao H Y, et al. Characteristics of aquatic bacterial community and the influencing factors in an urban river——A case study of Nanchang section of the Ganjiang River, Lake Poyang Basin[J]. Journal of Lake Sciences, 2018,30(3):741-752.
Jeon E M, Kim H J, Jung K, et al. Impact of Asian dust events on airborne bacterial community assessed by molecular analyses[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2011,45(25):4313-4321.
Teira E, HernándezRuiz M, Barberlluch E, et al. Bacterioplankton responses to riverine and atmospheric inputs in a coastal upwelling system (Ría de Vigo, NW Spain)[J]. Marine Ecology Progress, 2016:542.
Vannote R L, Minshall G W, Cummins K W, et al. The river continuum concept[J]. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1980,37(1):130-137.
Liu Z, Huang S, Sun G, et al. Phylogenetic diversity,composition and distribution of bacterioplankton community in the Dongjiang River,China[J]. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2012,80(1):30-44.
Stefano F, Eusebi V, Casamayor E O, et al. Stream Hydrological Fragmentation Drives Bacterioplankton Community Composition[J]. PloS one, 2013,8(5):64109.
Gao XQ, Olapade OA, Leff LG. Comparison of benthic bacterial community composition in nine streams[J]. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 2005,40:51-60.
丁珵,常玉梅,杨琦,等.我国东北典型河流冰封期细菌多样性的研究——以松花江为例[J]. 环境科学学报, 2012,32(6):1415-1423. Ding C, Chang Y M, Yang Q, et al. Bacterial biodiversity in the river in Northeast China during the freezing seasons:A case in Songhua River[J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 32(6):1415-1423.
孙玉平,于恒国,周钦,等.典型富营养化城市河流——浙江温瑞塘河的浮游植物群落类型与季节变化[J]. 湖泊科学, 2018,30(2):375-384. Sun Y P, Yu H G, Zhou Q, et al. Seasonal variation of phytoplankton communities in Wenruitang River-A typical eutrophic urban river, Zhejiang Province[J]. Journal of Lake Sciences, 2018,30(2):375-384.
Hu Y, Bai C R, Cai J, et al. Co-occurrence Network Reveals the Higher Fragmentation of the Bacterial Community in Kaidu River Than Its Tributaries in Northwestern China[J]. Microbes and Environments, 2018,33(2):127-134.
Wang X, Gu J, Gao H, et al. Abundances of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Bacterial Community Diversity in the Weihe River, China[J]. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 2018,15(4):708.
Staley C, Gould T J, Wang P, et al. Species sorting and seasonal dynamics primarily shape bacterial communities in the Upper Mississippi River[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2015,505:435-445
Savio D, Sinclair L, Ijaz U Z, et al. Bacterial diversity along a 2600km river continuum[J]. Environmental Microbiology, 2015,17(12):4994-5007.
Valter D O L F, Margis R, Mark I A. The Source of the River as a Nursery for Microbial Diversity[J]. PLoS ONE, 2015,10(3):e120608.
Ruiz-González C, Proia L, Ferrera I, et al. Effects of large river dam regulation on bacterioplankton community structure[J]. Fems Microbiology Ecology, 2013,84(2):316-331.
Fortunato C S, Crump B C. Bacterioplankton community variation across river to ocean environmental gradients[J]. Microbial Ecology, 2011,62:374-382.
Cottrell M T, Kirchman D L. Natural assemblages of marine proteobacteria and members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacter cluster consuming low-and high-molecular weight dissolved organic matter[J]. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2000,66:1692-1697.