Urinary metabolites of organophosphorus flame retardants in Guangzhou population: Exposure and health risk
LI Xiao-jing1,2, LI Qin3, ZHOU Jin-hua3, GUO Zhong-shan3, ZHONG Yi3, YU Ying-xin2
1. Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China; 2. Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Joint Laboratory of Pollutant Exposure and Health, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; 3. Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 510440, China
Abstract：This article was aimed at the 480general population in Guangzhou, using urine as a test matrix to study the concentration levels of metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants (mOPFRs), the potential sources of exposure, and clarified their health risks. Among the co-exposure with other organic pollutants such as phthalates, we tried to identify the chemicals with the highest health risks.The results showed that the mOPFRs were detectable in Guangzhou residents overall, with an average concentration of 6.59ng/mL. The bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate accounted for 68.5% of the total mOPFRs, and was the only mOPFR with detection frequency higher than 50%. A number of factors influenced the levels of mOPFRs. The urban areas had a higher level than the suburban areas, and the levels of mOPFRs in males were higher than those in females. Besides, more mOPFRs were detected in interior decoration than in undecorated areas in the short term, and the levels were higher in workers in the tertiary industry than in primary and secondary industries. Our results also observed a correlation between OPFR exposure levels and region, gender, living, and working environment. Non-carcinogenic risk assessment showed that approximately 25% of the population had a risk quotient higher than a unit, which suggested potential non-carcinogenic risks. The non-carcinogenic risks of phthalates were consistent with that calculated based on the data in the literature. There were 41.0% of the general population had a potential non-carcinogenic risk from exposure to OPFRs and phthalates, suggesting that we should pay more attention to these chemicals. Our current study provided data basis for reducing the health risks caused by these pollutants.
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