Abstract：This study researches the Songtao River basin, which is located in the core area of so called “Manganese Triangle Area in China. Statistical method was utilized to analyze the 18 water quality indexes of 17 monitoring sections in Songtao River obtained from year 2011 to 2019; emphases were made on contaminative features, spatio-temporal variations and source analysis of the major contaminants in Songtao River, e.g. NH3-N and Mn; the ecological risks of characteristic pollutants in Songtao River were evaluated by quotient method and safety threshold method respectively. The results show that Songtao River basin is mainly polluted by NH3-N and Mn, which are positively correlated at the level of P < 0.0001denoting a homology. Wastewater from the electrolytic manganese enterprises and leaching liquor from the landfill are the dominant sources of NH3-N and Mn. The spatio-temporal variations of NH3-N and Mn are basically the same, and their contaminative degree in major monitoring sections is closely related to the spatial distributions of electrolytic manganese enterprises and slag landfills. On the time dimension, the pollution in Songtao River basin has gradually declined yearly while the case for Muchi River, a branch of Songtao River, is on the opposite. Regarding aquatic organism exposure, two evaluative methods were applied to estimate the effects of the two major toxins on Songtao River water. The quotient method demonstrates the acute and chronic toxic effects as 10.37% and 44.93% for NH3-N, 69.81% and 77.89% for Mn; While the safety threshold method denotes the acute and chronic toxic effects to be 5.6% and 24.33% for NH3-N, 34% and 90% for Mn. A significant variation was noticed between the evaluations of the two methods. The quotient method was more conservative, which shows double risk levels of safety threshold method assessed for the NH3-N chronic and acute toxicity and Mn chronic toxicity. The current water quality standard for Songtao River is higher than the safe concentrations of NH3-N and Mn, which brings an “unprotecting” condition for the aquatic organisms in Songtao River. We suggest that the investigation on aquatic species in the Songtao River, the collection for toxicity data and the experiments on biological toxicology should be carried out, and the water quality standard of characteristic pollutants in Songtao River should be optimized as the scientific basis for formulating the regional water quality standards, which in turn to realize the differentiated risk management and ensure the ecological safety of water environment.
Shu J C, Liu R L, Liu Z H, et al. Solidification/stabilization of electrolytic manganese residue using phosphate resource and lowgrade MgO/CaO[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2016,317:267274.
蒋小花.电解锰渣复合胶凝材料及其应用的研究[D]. 重庆:重庆大学, 2010. Jiang X H. Study of the Electrolytic manganese residue cementing material and its application[D]. Chongqing:Chongqing University, 2010.
姜焕伟,谢辉,朱苓,等.电解金属锰生产中的废水排放与区域水质污染[J]. 中国锰业, 2004,22(1):5-9. Jiang H W, Xie H, Zhu L, et al. Wastewater discharge and regional water pollution in the production of electrolytic manganese metal[J]. China's Manganese Industry, 2004,022(1):5-9.
杜兵,但智钢,肖轲,等.稳定剂对电解锰废渣中高浓度可溶性锰稳定效果的影响[J]. 中国环境科学, 2015,35(4):1088-1095. Du B, Dan Z G, Xiao K, et al. Effects of different reagents on the stabilization of soluble manganese from electrolytic manganese solid waste[J]. China Environmental Science, 2015,35(4):1088-1095.
Duan N, Fan W, Chang B Z, et al. Analysis of pollution materials generated from electrolytic manganese industries in China[J]. Resources Conservation and Recycling, 2010,54(8):506-511.
王志增,史菲菲,但智钢,等.电解锰企业环境影响评价存在的问题与改进研究[J]. 环境科学与管理, 2016,41(3):170-173. Wang Z Z, Shi F F, Dan Z G, et al. Problems and suggestions for electrolytic mangnese idustry environmental impact assessment[J]. Environmental Science and Management, 2016,41(3):170-173.
Shu J C, Wu H P, Liu R L, et al. Simultaneous stabilization/solidification of Mn2+ and NH4+-N from electrolytic manganese residue using MgO and different phosphate resource[J]. Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety, 2018,148:220-227.
徐镜波,马逊风.温度,氨对鲢,鳙,草,鲤草的影响[J]. 中国环境科学, 1994,14(3):214-219. Xu J B, Ma X F. Effects of temperature and ammonia on silver carp, bighead carp, grass and carp grass[J]. China Environmental Science 1994,14(3):214-219.
闫振广,孟伟,刘征涛,等.我国淡水生物氨氮基准研究[J]. 环境科学, 2011,32(6):1564-1570. Yan Z G, Meng W, Liu Z T, et al. Development of freshwater aquatic life criteria for ammonia in China[J]. Environmental Science, 2011, 32(6):1564-1570.
石小荣,李梅,崔益斌,等.以太湖流域为例探讨我国淡水生物氨氮基准[J]. 环境科学学报, 2012,32(6):1406-1414. Shi X R, Li M, Cui Y B, et al. Development of aquatic water quality criteria for ammonia in freshwatere cosystem of China based on Lake Tai basin[J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2012,32(6):1406-1414.
王一喆,闫振广,张亚辉,等.七大流域氨氮水生生物水质基准与生态风险评估初探[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016,29(1):77-83. Wang Y Z,Yan Z G, Zhagn Y H, et al. Preliminary aquatic life criteria development and ecological risk assessment of ammonia in seven major basins in China[J].Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016,29(1):77-83.
Anzecc Armcanz. Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality[R]. In Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Canberra, 2000.
Peters, A, Lofts, S, Merrington, G, et al. Development of biotic ligand models for chronic manganese toxicity to fish, invertebrates, and algae[J]. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2011,30(11):24072415.
刘廷海.松桃河流域水资源开发利用与配置[J]. 城市建设理论研究, 2012,0(7):1-6. Liu Y H. Development, utilization and allocation of water resources in Songtao River Basin[J]. Research on Urban Construction Theory, 2012,32(7):1-6.
张海涛,石雪芳,刘亚斌,等.湘西花垣河花垣镇地段水体污染特征及来源解析[J]. 水土保持研究, 2017,24(5):329-336. Zhang H T, Shi X F, Liu Y B, et al. Characteristics and source identification of water pollution of Huayuan River in Huayuan town section, western HuNan Province[J]. Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 2017,24(5):329-336.
胡南,粟银,秦志峰,等.花垣河锰污染及其成因分析[J]. 环境监测管理与技术, 2008,20(3):25-27. Hu N, Su Y, Qin Z F, et al. Analysis of the manganese pollution and cause of formation in the Huayuan River[J]. The Administration and Technique of Environmental Monitoring, 2008,20(3):25-27.
GB3838-2002地表水环境质量标准[S]. GB3838-2002 Environmental quality standards for surface water[S].
GB11911-89水质铁、锰的测定火焰原子吸收分光光度法[S]. GB11911-89 Water quality-Determination of iron and manganeseFlame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method[S].
HJ536-2009水质氨氮的测定水杨酸分光光度法[S]. HJ536-2009 Water quality-Determination of ammonia nitrogenSalicylic acid spectrophotometry[S].
李素珍,闫振飞,付卫强,等.生态风险评估技术框架及其在环境管理中的应用[J]. 环境工程, 2019,37(3):189-194. Li S Z, Yan Z F, Fu W Q, et al. Technical framework of ecological risk assessment and its application in environmental management[J]. Environmental Engineering, 2019,37(3):189-194.
Solomon K R, Giesy J P, Lapoint T W, et al. Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North American surface waters[J]. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 2013,32(1):10-11.
赵微,林健,王树芳,等.变异系数法评价人类活动对地下水环境的影响[J]. 环境科学, 2013,34(4):55-61. Zhao W, Wang J, Wang S F, et al. Influence of human activities on groundwater environment based on coefficient of variation method[J]. Environmental Science, 2013,34(4):55-61.
孟伟,张远,郑丙辉.水环境质量基准、标准与流域水污染物总量控制策略[J]. 环境科学研究, 2006,19(3):1-6. Meng W, Zhang Y, Zhen B H, The quality criteria, standards of water environment and the water pollutant control strategy on watershed[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2006,19(3):1-6.
刘振斌.松桃"三十六字"锰污染治理改革的实践[J]. 中共铜仁市委党校学报, 2014,70(6):64-69. Liu Z B. Reform practice of thirty six words about manganese pollution control in Songtao[J]. Journal of the Party School of Tongren Municipal Committee of CPC, 2014,70(6):64-69.
Thurston R V, Russo R C, Vinogradov G A. Ammonia toxicity to fishes effect of pH on the toxicity of the unionized ammonia species[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 1981,15(7):837-840.
中华人民共和国生态环境部.淡水水生生物水质基准-氨氮(2020年版)[R]. 北京:2020. Ministry of ecology and environment of the people's Republic of China. Freshwater aquatic life criteria for ammonia[R]. Beijing:2020.
Shuhaimi-Othman M, Nadzifah Y, Nur-Amalina R, et al. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for copper, cadmium, aluminum and manganese for protection of aquatic life in Malaysia[J]. Chemosphere, 2013,90(11):2631-2636.
Jesús Mejía-Saavedra, Sergio Sánchez-Armass, Santos-Medrano G E, et al. Effect of coexposure to DDT and manganese on freshwater invertebrates:pore water from contaminated rivers and laboratory studies[J]. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 2010,24(8):20372044.
Harford A J, Trenfield M A, Cheng K L et al. Ecotoxicological assessment of manganese[R]. Darwin, Supervising Scientist, 2014.
Shuhaimi-othman M, Nur-Amalina R, Nadzifah Y. Toxicity of metals to a freshwater snail, Melanoides tuberculata[J]. The Scientific World Journal, 2012,1-10.
任宗明,李志良.高锰酸钾及氯化锰对日本青鳉的急、慢性毒性[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2009,4(6):841-846. Ren Z M,Li Z L. Toxic effects of potassium permanganate and manganese chloride on the early life stage of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2009,4(6):841846.
Tomasik P, Magadza C M, Mhizha S, et al. Metal-metal interactions in biological systems. Part IV. Freshwater snail Bulinus globosus[J]. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 1995,83(1):123-145.
Roth J, Ponzoni S, Aschner M. Manganese homeostasis and transport[J]. Met. Ions Life Sci., 2013,12:169-201.
Griffitt R J, Luo J, Gao J, et al. Effects of particle composition and species on toxicity of metallic nanomaterials in aquatic organisms[J]. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2010,27(9):1972-1978.
Harford A J, Mooney T J, Trenfield M A, et al. Manganese toxicity to tropical freshwater species in low hardness water[J]. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, 2015,34(12):2856-63.
程卫东.水体中锰暴露对草鱼和鲤鱼的生态毒理学影响[D]. 重庆:西南大学, 2017. Chen W D. Effects of exposure of manganese on ecological toxicology of Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Cyprinus carpio[D]. Chongqing:Southwest University, 2017.
杨松涛,程岭泉.锰的毒理及防治研究进展[J]. 职业卫生与病伤, 2000,15(2):116-118 Yang S T, Chen L Q. Research progress on toxicology and control of manganese[J]. Journal of Occupational Health and Damage, 2000, 15(2):116-118.