Abstract：In order to understand the changes of plant community phylogenetic structure and species diversity in alpine meadow of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, plant communities and environmental factors of alpine meadow were measured at five different altitudes, net relative index (NRI) and nearest taxon index (NTI) were calculated, and the changes of phylogenetic structure and phylogenetic diversity were discussed. The results showed that with the increase of altitude, soil temperature, soil water content, soil total nitrogen and organic carbon decreased. The number of richness, Shannon-Weiner index and phylogenetic diversity of plant community showed a "humped-back" relationship with the increase of altitude. Community species diversity reached the maximum at 3500m. The betaMPD increased with the increase of altitude, indicating that species aggregation was affected by habitat filtration. The low altitude (3000m) community had divergent (NRI < 0, NTI < 0), and competition exclusion played a major role; at lower altitude (3250m) and middle altitude (3500m), there were aggregation (NRI > 0, NTI > 0) and divergence (NRI < 0, NTI < 0), indicating that habitat filtration and competitive exclusion jointly maintained the species diversity of the community; community phylogenetic structure aggregation (NRI > 0, NTI > 0) at high altitude (3750m, 4000m) was related to species convergence evolution and habitat filtration. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil temperature and soil water content were the main influencing factors of species coexistence in different altitudes. This study reveal that the changes of plant community phylogenetic structure and diversity pattern of alpine meadow in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, indicating that niche process is an important mechanism to maintain the diversity of plant communities.
徐璐, 刘旻霞, 穆若兰, 张国娟, 于瑞新, 李亮. 高寒草甸植物群落谱系结构与多样性格局[J]. 中国环境科学, 2021, 41(3): 1387-1397.
XU Lu, LIU Min-xia, MU Ruo-lan, ZHANG Guo-juan, YU Rui-xin, LI Liang. Phylogenetic structure and diversity pattern of plant community in alpine meadow. CHINA ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCECE, 2021, 41(3): 1387-1397.
Götzenberger L, de Bello F, Bråthen K A, et al. Ecological assembly rules in plant communities-Approaches, patterns and prospects[J]. Biological Reviews, 2012,87:111-127.
Zhang P P, Shao M A, Zhang X C. Spatial pattern of plant species diversity and the influencing factors in a Gobi Desert within the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2017,9(3):379-393.
Webb C O, Ackerly D D, Donoghue M J. Phylogenies and community ecology[J]. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 2002,33:475-505.
牛红玉,王峥峰,练琚愉,等.群落构建研究的新进展:进化和生态相结合的群落谱系结构研究[J]. 生物多样性, 2011,19(3):275-283. Niu H Y, Wang Z F, Lian J Y, et al. New progress in community assembly:community phylogenetic structure combining evolution and ecology[J]. Biodiversity Science, 2011,19(3):275-283.
Cavender-Bares J, Kozak K H, Fine P A, et al. The merging of community ecology and phylogenetic biology[J]. Ecology Letters, 2009,12:693-715.
Wiens J J, Gabriela P O, Mario G P, et al. Phylogenetic history underlies elevational biodiversity patterns in tropical salamanders[J]. Proceedings of the Royal Society B:Biological Sciences, 2007,274(1612):919-928.
Faith D P. Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity[J]. Biological Conservation, 1992,61(1):1-10.
Devictor V, Mouillot D, Meynard C, et al. Spatial mismatch and congruence between taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity:the need for integrative conservation strategies in a changing world[J]. Ecology letters, 2010,13(8):1030-1040.
Sanders H L. Marine benthic diversity:A comparative study[J]. The American Naturalist, 1968,102:243-282.
Raup D M. Taxonomic diversity estimation using rarefaction[J]. Paleobiology, 1975,1:333-342.
Gotelli N J, Colwell R K. Quantifying biodiversity:procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness[J]. Ecology Letters. 2001,4(4):379-391
Swenson N G, Wang X, Wiegand T, et al. Phylogenetic and functional diversity area relationships in two temperate forests[J]. Echography, 2013,36(8):883-893.
Emerson B C, Gillespie R G. Phylogenetic analysis of community assembly and structure over space and time[J]. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 2008,23:619-630.
Bryant J A, Lamanna C, Morlon H, et al. Microbes on mountain sides:contrasting elevational patterns of bacterial and plant diversity[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2008,105:11505-11511.
刘巍,曹伟.长白山植物群落谱系结构及环境因子对其的影响[J]. 干旱区资源与环境, 2013,27(5):63-68. Liu W, Cao W. Phylogenetic structure and influence of environmental factors on phylogenetic structure of plant community in Changbai Mountains[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 2013, 27(5):63-68.
Kembel S W, Hubbell S P. The phylogenetic structure of a neotropical forest tree community[J]. Ecology, 2006,87(S7):S86-S89.
黄建雄,郑凤英,米湘成.不同尺度上环境因子对常绿阔叶林群落的谱系结构的影响[J]. 植物生态学报, 2010,34(3):309-315. Huang J X, Zheng F Y, Mi X C. Influence of environmental factors on phylogenetic structure at multiple spatial scales in an evergreen broad-leaved forest of China[J]. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 2010,34(3):309-315.
吴向培.试论长江、黄河源区生态环境现状及其防治对策[J]. 中国环境科学, 2000,(S1):64-67. Wu X P. On the current ecological environment status in the source area of Yangtze River and Yellow River and its control countermeasure[J]. China Environmental Science, 2000,(S1):64-67.
Gheyur G, Guo Y P, Fang J Y, et al. Latitudinal and elevational patterns of phylogenetic structure in forest communities in China's mountains[J]. Science China-Life Sciences:1-10,2020.
Zanne A E, Tank D C, Cornwell W K, et al. Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments[J]. Nature, 2014,506:89-92.
Webb C O. Exploring the phylogenetic structure of ecological communities:an example for rain forest trees[J]. The American Naturalist, 2000,156:145-155.
黄冰.浅谈稀疏标准化方法(Rarefaction)及其在群落多样性研究中的应用[J]. 古生物学报, 2012,51(2):200-208. Huang B. Preliminary study on sparse normalization method (Rarefaction) and its application in community diversity study[J]. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 2012,51(2):200-208.
Yan Y J, Yang X, Tang Z Y. Patterns of species diversity and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau[J]. Ecology and Evolution, 2013,3(13):4584-95.
刘哲,李奇,陈懂懂,等.青藏高原高寒草甸物种多样性的海拔梯度分布格局及对地上生物量的影响[J]. 生物多样性, 2015,23:451-462. Liu Z, Li Q, Chen D D, et al. Patterns of plant species diversity along an altitudinal gradient and its effect on above-ground biomass in alpine meadows in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. Biodiversity Science, 2015,23:451-462.
Miquel D C, Pierre L, Renato V, et al. The variation of tree beta diversity across a global network of forest plots[J]. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2012,21(12).
Graham C H, Fine P V. Phylogenetic beta diversity:linking ecological and evolutionary processes across space in time[J]. Ecology Letters, 2008,11,1265-1277.
Page N V, Shanker K. Environment and dispersal influence changes in species composition at different scales in woody plants of the Western Ghats, India[J]. Journal of Vegetation Science, 2018,29:74-83.
Tang Z Y, Fang J Y, Chi X L, et al. Patterns of plant beta-diversity along elevational and latitudinal gradients in mountain forests of China[J]. Ecography, 2012,35:1083-1091.
Cardillo M. Phylogenetic structure of mammal assemblages at large geographical scales:Linking phylogenetic community ecology with macroecology[J]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2011,366(1577):2545-2553.
Zhang D C, Zhang Y H, Boufford D E, et al. Elevational patterns of species richness and endemism for some important taxa in the Hengduan Mountains, southwestern China[J]. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2009,18(3):699-716.
Donoghue M J. A phylogenetic perspective on the distribution of plant diversity[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2008,105:247-262.
卢孟孟,黄小翠,慈秀芹,等.沿海拔梯度变化的哀牢山亚热带森林群落系统发育结构[J]. 生物多样性, 2014,22(4):438-449. Lu M M, Huang X C, Ci X Q, et al. Phylogenetic community structure of subtropical forests along elevational gradients in Ailao Mountains of southwest China[J]. Biodiversity Science, 2014,22(4):438-449.
Helmus M R, Keller W, Paterson M J, et al. Communities contain closely related species during ecosystem disturbance[J]. Ecology Letters, 2010,13(2):162-174.
Lai J S, Mi X C, Ren H B, et al. Species-Habitat associations change in a subtropical forest of china[J]. Journal of Vegetation Science, 2009,20(3):415-423.
吕雅宁,解莹,王少明,等.基于底栖动物群落相似性的黑水河替代生境的研究[J]. 中国环境科学, 2020,40(6):2647-2657. Lv Y N, Xie Y, Wang S M, et al. Studies about Heishui River as an alternative habitat for aquatic biodiversity protection basedon macroinvertebrate community similarity[J]. China Environmental Science, 2020,40(6):2647-2657.
Pen M S, Berg N, Genzer N, et al. Do slope orientation and sampling location determine soil biota composition?[J]. Frontiers of Biology in China, 2009,4(3):364-375.
Deng Y C, Wu J, Wu Y B, et al. Relationship between functional diversity of alpine meadow soil bacteria and environmental factors at altitude gradient[J]. Journal of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2013,30(5):620-627.
刘旻霞,蒋晓轩,李全弟,等.兰州北山不同植被土壤可培养微生物丰度变化特征及影响因素[J]. 中国环境科学, 2020,40(6):2683-2691. Liu M X, Jiang X X, Li Q D, et al. Characteristics and influencing factors of soils culturable microorganism abundance in different vegetation of Beishan, Lanzhou[J]. China Environmental Science, 2020,40(6):2683-2691.
Siefert A, Ravenscroft C, Althoff D, et al. Scale dependence of vegetation-environment relationships:a meta-analysis of multivariate data[J]. Journal of Vegetation Science, 2012,23(5):942-951.