Abstract：A twelve-treatment experiment with the main plot(three water treatments: 30% increase (W), 30% reduction (R),and natural rainfall (CK) and split-plot (0 (N0), 30 (N30), 50 (N50) and 100 (N100) kg/(hm2·a)4nitrogen gradients was designed in Stipa breviflora desert steppe to investigate the impact of nitrogen deposition and rainfall changes on soil nematodes. A total of 41 genera of soil nematodes were identified in the study area, and the dominant community genera were Acrobeles and Acrobeloides. Compared with nitrogen addition, the number of nematodes wasincreased significantly in precipitation and that influences were especially obvious in October. N50 gradient was more beneficial to increase the number of nematodes under the situation of reduced rain. In terms of functional groups, the largest part bacterial-eating nematodes in the 0~10cm soil were 41.00% to 45.56% of the total and an upward trend was shown in the seasonal dynamics, while the lowest part was the number of omnivorous nematodes. Bacteria-eating and fungus-eating nematodes were negatively correlated with nitrogen gradients. According to the ecological index, soil nematode diversity would be inhibited by only increasing rainfall, and the nematode community diversity and stability was not changedby single nitrogen addition. However, the abundance of nematodes was terrifically cut down by lower nitrogen addition. Under dynamic treatments in different seasons, the soil mineralization pathway was affected by micro-nematodes, and the organic matter was mainly degraded by fungi. Under reduced rainfall and nitrogen application, soil anti-interference ability was improved. Important environmental factors affecting soil nematode communities were pH, organic matter, and ammonium nitrogen content. The number of K-strategist groups was increased in increasing soil nitrogen content and decreasing in pH, while the number of R-strategist groups was reduced. Changing in soil nematode community structure was indicated that the stability of the underground food web in the Stipa breviflora desert steppe ecosystem was gradually increased.
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