Temporal and spatial variation characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in Yarlung Zangbo River
LIU Jia-ju1,2,3, GUO Huai-cheng2
1. College of Architecture and Landscape Design, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; 2. Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; 3. Institute of Landscape Architecture, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China
Abstract：In order to reveal the changing law of the water vapor cycle process in the basin, and reveal the relationship between stable isotopes of river water and meteorological elements and altitude. In 2018, 90 water samples were collected from the main stream of the Yarlung Zangbo River in three periods of high, flat, and dry. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition of the river water were analyzed and the relationship between stable isotopes of surface water and meteorological elements and altitude was revealed. The main contents and results of the study are as follows:the spatial variation characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin were studied using the quantitative relationship model of δ18O with latitude and altitude.It is found that the change of δ18O value in precipitation showed a trend of low in the east and west (upper and lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River) and the high and middle parts (the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River). The hydrogen and oxygen isotope equations of the river water during the rich, flat and dry periods of the Yarlung Zangbo River had been established. The study found that the slope of the linear equation of δD and δ18O was lower than the atmospheric precipitation line in China. River water δD and δ18O had certain seasonal characteristics, which were more affected by atmospheric precipitation. The high water period was more obvious than the normal water period and the dry period; The spatial characteristics δ18O in the Yarlung Zangbo River were shown as the overall performance from west to east of the trend of first decreasing and then increasing, the north-south space shows a trend of increasing δD-δ18O of river water from south to north. The δD-δ18O value had a weak negative correlation with altitude; Affected by surface evaporation fractionation, precipitation cloud cluster migration and rock weathering in the basin, the water d value of the Yarlung Zangbo River had seasonal and spatial changes significantly.
中国科学院青藏高原综合科学考察队编.西藏河流与湖泊[J]. 科学出版社, 1984.Chinese Academy of Sciences Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Comprehensive Scientific Expedition Team. Tibet Rivers and Lakes[J]. Science Press, 1984.
Rozanski, Kazimierz, Froehlich, et al. Environmental isotopes in the hydrological cycle:principles and applications, v. III:Surface water[M]//Environmental isotopes in the hydrological cycle:principles and applications. Unesco, 2001.
姚檀栋.青藏高原水体中稳定同位素研究[J]. 科学通报, 2009, 54(15):2123.Yao T D.Research on stable isotopes in the waters of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau[J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2009,54(15):2123.
Dansgaard W. Stable isotope in precipitation[J]. Tellns, 1964,16.
刘忠方,田立德,姚檀栋,等.中国大气降水中δ18O的空间分布[J]. 科学通报, 2009,54(6):804-811.Liu Z F, Tian L D, Yao T D, et al. Spatial distribution of δ18O in atmospheric precipitation in China[J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2009, 54(6):804-811.
Ramesh R, Sarin, M M. Stable isotope study of the Ganga (Ganges) river system[J]. Journal of Hydrology, 1992,139(1-4):49-62.
Zhang J, Letolle R, Martin J M, et al. Stable oxygen isotope distribution in the Huanghe (Yellow River) and the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuarine systems[J]. Continental Shelf Research, 1990,10(4):369-384.
高建飞,丁悌平,罗续荣,等.黄河水氢、氧同位素组成的空间变化特征及其环境意义[J]. 地质学报, 2011,85(4):596-602.Gao J F, Ding T P, Luo X, et al. Spatial variation characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of the Yellow River water and its environmental significance[J]. Acta Geology, 2011,85(4):596-602.
Luiz A M, Reynaldo L V, Leonel S L S, et al. Using stable isotopes to determine sources of evaporated water to the atmosphere in the Amazon basin[J]. Journal of Hydrology, 1996,183(3/4):191-204.
刘昭.雅鲁藏布江拉萨-林芝段天然水水化学及同位素特征研究[D]. 成都:成都理工大学, 2011.Liu Z. Natural water chemistry and isotopic characteristics of the Lhasa-Nyingchi section of the Yarlung Zangbo River[D]. Chengdu:Chengdu University of Technology, 2011.
周毅,吴华武,贺斌,等.长江水δ18O和δD时空变化特征及其影响因素分析[J]. 长江流域资源与环境, 2017,26(5):678-686.Zhou Y, Wu H W, He B, et al. Temporal and spatial variation characteristics of δ18O and δD in the Yangtze River water and analysis of its influencing factors[J]. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 2017,26(5):678-686.
刘琴.青藏高原及其周边地区地表水氢氧稳定同位素空间变化特征[D]. 重庆:西南大学, 2014.Liu Q. Spatial variation characteristics of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas[D]. Chongqing:Southwest University, 2014.
包宇飞.雅鲁藏布江水文水化学特征及流域碳循环研究[D]. 北京:中国水利水电科学研究院, 2019.Bao Y. Hydrological and Hydrochemical Characteristics of Yarlung Zangbo River and Carbon Cycle in the Basin[D]. Beijing:China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, 2019.
李红敬,张娜,林小涛.西藏雅鲁藏布江水质时空特征分析[J]. 河南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2010,38(2):126-130.Li H, Zhang N, Lin X T. Analysis of the temporal and spatial characteristics of water quality of the Yarlung Zangbo River in Tibet[J]. Journal of Henan Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2010,38(2):126-130.
Huang X, Sillanpää M, Gjessing E T, Vogt R D. Water quality in the Tibetan Plateau:major ions and trace elements in the headwaters of four major Asian rivers[J]. Sci. Total. Environ., 2009,407(24):6242-6254.
HJ 494-2009水质.采样技术指导[S].HJ 494-2009 Water quality. Sampling technical guidance[S].
HJ/T 91-2002地表水和污水监测技术规范[S].HJ/T 91-2002 Technical Specifications for Surface Water and Wastewater Monitoring[S].
刘佳驹,赵雨顺,黄香,等,雅鲁藏布江流域水化学时空变化及其控制因素[J]. 中国环境科学, 2018,38(11):4289-4297.Liu J J, Zhao Y F, Huang X, et al. Spatial and temporal changes of water chemistry in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin and its controlling factors[J]. China Environmental Science, 2018,38(11):4289-4297.
Craig H. Isotopic Variation in Meteoric Waters[J]. Science, 1961, 133(3465):1702-1703.
Yamanaka T, Shimada J, Hamada Y, et al. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation in the northern part of the North China Plain:climatology and inter-storm variability[J]. Hydrological Processes, 2004.
郑淑蕙,侯发高,倪葆龄.我国大气降水的氢氧稳定同位素研究[J]. 科学通报, 1983,(13):801-806.Zheng S H, Hou F G, Ni B L. Research on the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes of atmospheric precipitation in my country[J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 1983,(13):801-806.
Rong J, Yufei B, Yong S, et al. Spatio-temporal variations of the stable H-O isotopes and characterization of mixing processes between the mainstream and tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir[J]. Water, 2018,10(5):563.
Liu Y H, Fan, et al. Characteristics of water isotopes and hydrograph separation during the wet season in the Heishui River, China[J]. J. Hydrol, 2008,353(3/4)(-):314-321.
Tian L, V Masson-Delmotte, Stievenard M, et al. Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon northward extent revealed by measurements of water stable isotopes[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research:Atmospheres, 2001,106(D22).
Holdsworth G, Krouse H R. Altitudinal variation of the stable isotopes of snow in regions of high relief[J]. Journal of Glaciology, 2002, 48(160):31-41.
田立德,姚檀栋,余武生,等.喜马拉雅山中段高过量氘与西风带水汽输送有关[J]. 科学通报, 2005,(7):669-672.Tian L D, Yao T D, Yu W S, et al. High excess deuterium in the middle of the Himalayas is related to water vapor transport in the westerly zone[J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2005,(7):669-672.
Jouzel J, Froehlich K, Schotterer U. Deuterium and oxygen-18 in present-day precipitation:data and modelling[J]. International Association of Scientific Hydrology Bulletin, 1997,42(5):747-763.