Abstract：In order to evaluate environmental impact of cascade utilization fromlithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries,two utilization scenarios, direct utilization scenario and cascade utilization scenario, were set in this article. The environmental impact and contribution of each stage in both of utilization scenarios were analyzed based on life cycle assessment (LCA)methodology.With a life cycle of 800times, 1GWh LFP battery used in energy storage battery for the communication base station (CBS) was set as the function unit. The key points of environmental impact from the two utilization scenarios were the energy storage utilization stage, accounting for 58.25% and 64.03% of the total environmental impact respectively. The environmental impact from the manufacturing stage was also significant, accounting for 41.58% and 27.36%, respectively. The contribution to the total environmental loads from the recovery and regeneration stage was 0.18% and 0.14%, respectively. The environmental benefits fromthe lithium recycling were offset by the environmental loads fromthe additional resources and energy consumption initsrecycling process. The results from the comparing the environmental impactof the two utilization scenarios revealed that the cascade utilization scenario reduced the total environmental impact by9.03%, which is more environmentally friendly compared to the direct utilization scenario. Furthermore, the contribution structuresof the resource consumption, energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission in the two scenarios were analyzed. The results indicated that the manufacturing stage and the energy storage utilization stagecontributed significantly to these three indicators.
贾志杰, 高峰, 杜世伟, 孙博学. 磷酸铁锂电池不同应用场景的生命周期评价[J]. 中国环境科学, 2022, 42(4): 1975-1984.
JIAZhi-jie, GAO Feng, DU Shi-wei, SUN Bo-xue. Life cycle assessment of lithium iron phosphate battery in different utilization scenarios. CHINA ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCECE, 2022, 42(4): 1975-1984.
王子璇,李俊成,李金东,等.废磷酸铁锂正极材料资源化回收工艺研究[J]. 储能科学与技术, 2022,11(1):45−52. Wang Z X, Li J C, Li J D, et al. Research on resource recovery technology of spent lithiumiron phosphate cathode material[J]. Energy Storage Science and Technology, 2022,11(1):45−52.
杨见青,关杰,梁波,等.我国废弃磷酸铁锂电池的资源化研究[J]. 环境工程, 2017,35(2):127−132. Yang J Q, Guan J, Liang B, et al. Research on recycling of the scrap lithium iron phosphate batteries in China[J]. Environmental Engineering, 2017,35(2):127−132.
吴小龙,王晨麟,陈曦,等.废旧锂离子电池市场规模及回收利用技术[J]. 环境科学与技术, 2020,43(S2):179−183. Wu X L, Wang C L, Chen X, et al. Market scale and recycling technology of waste lithium−ion batteries[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2020,43(S2):179−183.
Wang W, Wu Y. An overview of recycling and treatment of spent LiFePO4 batteries in China[J]. Resources Conservationand Recycling, 2017,127:233−243.
王苏杭,李建林.退役动力电池梯次利用研究进展[J]. 分布式能源, 2021,6(2):1−7. Wang S H, Li J L. Research progress on echelon utilization of retired power batteries[J]. Distributed Energy, 2021,6(2):1−7.
高桂兰,贺欣,李亚光,等.废旧车用动力锂离子电池的回收利用现状[J]. 环境工程, 2017,35(10):135−140. Gao H L, He X, Li Y G, et al. Current status of recycling technology of spent automotivelithium−ion batteries[J]. Environmental Engineering, 2017,35(10):135−140.
ISO 14040:2006Environmental management − Life cycle assessment − Principles and framework[S]. 2006.
ISO 14044:2006Environmental management − Life cycle assessment − Requirements and guidelines[S]. 2006.
殷仁述,杨沿平,杨阳,等.车用钛酸锂电池生命周期评价[J]. 中国环境科学, 2018,38(6):2371−2381. Yin R S, Yang Y P, Yang Y, et al. Life cycle assessment of the lithium titanate batteries used for electric vehicles[J]. China Environmental Science, 2018,38(6):2371−2381.
王韬翔,康丽霞,刘永忠.固定二次应用场景下基于LCA的动力电池退役点定量确定方法[J]. 化工进展, 2019,38(5):2197−2204. Wang T X, Kang L X, Liu Y Z. Quantitative method to determine retiring point of batteries for electricvehicles based on LCA under fixed second−use scenarios[J]. Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress, 2019,38(5):2197−2204.
Ahmadi L, Young S B, Fowler M, et al. A cascaded life cycle:reuse of electric vehicle lithium−ion battery packs in energy storage systems[J]. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2017,22(1):111−124.
Ioakimidis C S, Murillo−Marrodán A, Bagheri A, et al. Life cycle assessment of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) electric vehicle battery in second life application scenarios[J]. Sustainability, 2019,11(9):2527.
Casals L C, GarcíaBA, Aguesse F, et al. Second life of electric vehicle batteries:relation between materials degradation and environmental impact[J]. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2017, 22(1):82−93.
Bobba S, Mathieux F, Ardente F, et al. Life cycle assessment of repurposed electric vehicle batteries:an adapted method based on modelling energy flows[J]. Journal of Energy Storage, 2018,(19):213− 225.
Sathre R, Scown C D, Kavvada O, et al. Energy and climate effects of second−life use of electric vehicle batteries in California through 2050[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2015,288:82−91.
Yang J, Gu F, Guo J. Environmental feasibility of secondary use of electric vehicle lithium−ion batteries in communication base stations[J]. Resources Conservation and Recycling, 2020,(156):104713.
Richa K, Babbitt C W, Nenadic N G, et al. Environmental trade−offs across cascading lithium−ion battery life cycles[J]. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2017,22(1):66−81.
Cusenza M A, Guarino F, Longo S, et al. Reuse of electric vehicle batteries in buildings:An integrated load match analysis and life cycle assessment approach[J]. Energy and Buildings, 2019,186:339−354.
Wilson N, Meiklejohn E, Overton B, et al. A physical allocation method for comparative life cycle assessment:A case study of repurposing Australian electric vehicle batteries[J]. Resources Conservation and Recycling, 2021,174:105759.
谢英豪,余海军,欧彦楠,等.废旧动力电池回收的环境影响评价研究[J]. 无机盐工业, 2015,47(4):43−46,61. Xie Y H, Yu H J, OuY N, et al. Environmental impact assessment of recycling waste traction battery[J]. Inorganic Chemicals Industry, 2015,47(4):43−46,61.
Hendrickson T P, Kavvada O, Shah N, et al. Life−cycle implications and supply chain logistics ofelectric vehicle battery recycling in California[J]. Environmental Research Letters, 2015,10(1):014011.
Rajaeifar M A, Raugei M, Steubing B, et al. Life cycle assessment of lithium−ion battery recycling using pyrometallurgical technologies[J]. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2021,25(6):1560−1571.
Mohr M, Peters J F, Baumann M, et al. Toward a cell−chemistry specific life cycle assessment of lithium−ion battery recycling processes[J]. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2020:1−13.
王琢璞.新能源汽车动力电池回收利用潜力及生命周期评价[D]. 北京:清华大学, 2018. Wang Z P. Potential and life cycle assessment of recycling of power batteries for new energy vehicles[D]. Beijing:Tsinghua University, 2018.
Majeau−Bettez G, Hawkins T R, Stromman A H. Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium−ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug−in hybrid and battery electric vehicles[J]. Environment Science & Technology, 2011,45(10):4548−4554.
Q/ZTT2227−2017基站用梯级磷酸铁锂电池集成技术要求[S]. 2017. Q/ZTT2227−2017 Technical requirements of echelon use LiFePO4 battery system for base station[S]. 2017.
Ahmadi L, Fowler M, Young S B, et al. Environmental feasibility of reuse of electric vehicle batteries[J]. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 2014,(6):64−74.
De Vroey L, Jahn R, Baghdadi M E, et al. Plug−to−wheel energy balance−results of a two years' experience behind the wheel of electric vehicles[J]. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 2013,6(1):130−134.
GB 51194−2016通信电源设备安装工程设计规范[S]. GB 51194−2016 Code for design of engineering for telecom munication power supply equipment installation[S].
Han X, Ouyang M, Lu L, et al. A comparative study of commercial lithium ion battery cycle life in electric vehicle:Capacity loss estimation[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2014,(268):658−669.
郝硕硕,董庆银,李金惠.基于成本核算的废旧动力电池回收模式分析与趋势研究[J]. 中国环境科学, 2021,41(10):4745−4755. Hao S S, Dong Q Y, Li J H. Analysis and tendency on the recycling mode of used EV batteries based on cost accounting[J]. China Environmental Science, 2021,41(10):4745−4755.
肖胜权.基于全生命周期评价的动力电池环境效益研究[D]. 厦门:厦门大学, 2019. Xiao S Q. Research on environmental benefits of power battery based onlife cycle assessment[D]. Xiamen:Xiamen University, 2019.
Zhang Q Q, Gong X Z, Meng X C. Environment impact analysis of natural graphite anode material production[J]. Materials Science Forum, 2018,913:1011−1017.
Yin R S, Hu S H, Yang Y. Life cycle inventories of the commonly used materials for lithium−ion batteries in China[J]. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2019,227:960−971.
葛鑫,赖麒,姜维,等.聚碳酸酯新型生产工艺的生命周期评价[J]. 内蒙古科技大学学报, 2019,38(4):404−408. Ge X, Lai Q, Jiang W, et al. Life circle assessment on a novel production process ofpolycarbonate[J]. Journal of Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, 2019,38(4):404−408.
Beijing University of Technology. Material Environmental Load Database−Sinocenter[DB/OL]. http://cnmlca.bjut.edu.cn.
刘凯辉.比亚迪E6纯电动汽车全生命周期评价[D]. 福州:福建农林大学, 2016. Liu K H. Life cycle assessment of BYD E6electric vehicle[D]. Fuzhou:Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 2016.
Li H, Gong X Z, Wang Z H, et al. Life cycle assessment of cathode copper production[J]. Materials Science Forum, 2017,898:2422− 2431.