A study on employees’ skin exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and health risk in a petrochemical industrial park
GUO Jian1,2, LUO Xiao-jun1, GUAN Ke-lan1,2, Lü Yin-zhi1,2, ZENG Yan-hong1, MAI Bi-xian1
1. State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China; 2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract：In the study, skin wipe samples were collected from four typical skin parts (forehead, palm, forearm and shank) of 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women), who work in a Petrochemical Industrial Park in Maoming City (a typical petrochemical city). The concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑15 PAHs) in wiping samples were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the human exposure doses through skin exposure and hand-mouth contact were calculated. The concentration of Σ15PAHs in skin samples ranged from 21 to 1.9×104ng/m2. The PAH concentrations exhibited significant differences among different skin parts (P<0.01) with the order of forehead>palm>forearm>shank. PAHs are mainly composed of 3~4rings. Although no statistical difference was observed in ∑15 PAHs between female and male, the daily dermal absorption doses of PAH (DADderm) was significantly higher in female [41ng/(kg×d)] than male [28ng/(kg×d)]. The hand-mouth exposure dose [0.34ng/(kg×d)] was negligible to compare with the dermal absorption dose [34ng/(kg×d)]. The bared skins contribute to 88% of dermal absorption dose. There was no obvious non-carcinogenic risk but risks of skin cancer were higher than the acceptable level (1×10-4) for 7% staff, indicating potential skin cancer risk.
郭建, 罗孝俊, 管克兰, 吕银知, 曾艳红, 麦碧娴. 石化工业园员工PAHs的皮肤暴露及健康风险[J]. 中国环境科学, 2022, 42(11): 5427-5435.
GUO Jian, LUO Xiao-jun, GUAN Ke-lan, Lü Yin-zhi, ZENG Yan-hong, MAI Bi-xian. A study on employees’ skin exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and health risk in a petrochemical industrial park. CHINA ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCECE, 2022, 42(11): 5427-5435.
刘明洋,李会茹,宋爱民,等.环境和人体中氯代/溴代多环芳烃的研究进展-污染来源,分析方法和污染特征[J]. 中国环境科学, 2021, 41(4):1842-1855. Liu M Y, Li H R, Song A M, et al. A review of chlorinated/brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment and human:sources, analysis methods and pollution characteristics[J]. China Environmental Science, 2021,41(4):1842-1855.
Shaw G R, Connell D W. DNA adducts as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in aquatic organisms:relationship to carcinogenicity[J]. Biomarkers, 2001,6(1):64-71.
付建平,赵波,黎玉清,等.废旧轮胎翻新过程中多环芳烃排放及健康风险[J]. 环境科学, 2018,39(6):2963-2970. Fu J P, Zhao B, Li Y Q, et al. Discussion of emissions and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the retreading process of waste tires[J]. Environmental Science, 2018,39(6):2963-2970.
张晗,陈昱,吕占禄,等.沟塘水质及其周边浅层地下水PAHs的风险评价[J]. 中国环境科学, 2021,41(8):3808-3815. Zhang H, Cheng Y, Lv Z L, et al. Risk assessment of PAHs in ditch pond water and its surrounding shallow groundwater[J]. China Environmental Science, 2021,41(8):3808-3815.
贺博文,聂赛赛,李仪琳,等.承德市PM2.5中多环芳烃的季节分布特征、来源解析及健康风险评价[J]. 环境科学, 2022,43(5):2343-2354. He B W, Nie S S, Li Y L, et al. Seasonal distribution characteristics, source analysis, and health risk evaluation of PAHs in PM2.5 in Chengde[J]. Environmental Science, 2022,43(5):2343-2354.
Xia Z, Duan X, Tao S, et al. Pollution level, inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China[J]. Environmental Pollution, 2013,173:150-156.
彭彬,苏玉红,杜伟,等.湖北农村燃柴和燃煤家庭大气多环芳烃污染特征和呼吸暴露风险[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2018,13(5):171-181. Peng B, Su Y H, Du W, et al. Household air pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in homes burning wood and coals and inhalation exposure risks in rural Hubei[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2018,13(5):171-181.
于紫玲,林钦,孙闰霞,等.海南岛沿海牡蛎体中PAHs的时空分布及其健康风险评价[J]. 中国环境科学, 2015,35(5):1570-1578. Yu Z L, Lin Q, Sun R X, et al. Spatial-temporal distribution and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oysters along the coast of Hainan Island.[J]. China Environmental Science, 2015, 35(5):1570-1578.
Kim E, Coelho D, Blachier F. Review of the association between meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer[J]. Nutrition Research, 2013,33(12):983-994.
Harris K L, Banks L D, Mantey J A, et al. Bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons:relevance to toxicity and carcinogenesis[J]. Expert. Opin. Drug. Metab. Toxicol., 2013,9(11):1465-1480.
Martorell I, Perello G, Marti-CID R, et al. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in foods and estimated PAH intake by the population of Catalonia, Spain:Temporal trend[J]. Environment International, 2010,36(5):424-432.
Cao Z, Chen Q, Zhu C, et al. Halogenated organic pollutant residuals in human bared and clothing-covered skin areas:source differentiation and comprehensive health risk assessment[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2019,53(24):14700-14708.
Xu Y, Cohen Hubal E A, Little J C. Predicting residential exposure to phthalate plasticizer emitted from vinyl flooring:sensitivity, uncertainty, and implications for biomonitoring[J]. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2010,118(2):253-258.
Weschler C J, Nazaroff W W. Dermal uptake of organic vapors commonly found in indoor air[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014,48(2):1230-1237.
Lao J Y, Xie S Y, Wu C C, et al. Importance of dermal absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons derived from barbecue fumes[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2018,52(15):8330-8338.
Weschler C J, Nazaroff W W. SVOC exposure indoors:fresh look at dermal pathways[J]. Indoor Air, 2012,22(5):356-377.
Salthammer T, Zhang Y, Mo J, et al. Assessing human exposure to organic pollutants in the indoor environment[J]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2018,57(38):12228-12263.
Abdallah M A, Pawar G, Harrad S. Evaluation of 3D-human skin equivalents for assessment of human dermal absorption of some brominated flame retardants[J]. Environment International, 2015,84:64-70.
Rantakokko P, Kumar E, Braber J, et al. Concentrations of brominated and phosphorous flame retardants in Finnish house dust and insights into children's exposure[J]. Chemosphere, 2019,223:99-107.
Liu X T, Yu G, Cao Z G, et al. Occurrence of organophosphorus flame retardants on skin wipes:Insight into human exposure from dermal absorption[J]. Environment International, 2017,98:113-119.
Nazzaro-Porro M, Passi S, Bonifortil, et al. Effects of aging on fatty acids in skin surface lipids[J]. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 1979,73(1):112-117.
王喆,刘少卿,陈晓民,等.健康风险评价中中国人皮肤暴露面积的估算[J]. 安全与环境学报, 2008,(4):152-156. Wang Z, Liu S Q, Chen X M, et al. Estimates of the exposed dermal surface area of Chinese in view of human health risk assessment[J]. Journal of Safety and Environment, 2008,(4):152-156.
Stapleton H M, Kelly S M, Allen J G, et al. Measurement of polyhrominated diphenyl ethers on hand wipes:Estimating exposure from hand-to-mouth contact[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008,42(9):3329-3334.
Zartarian V G, Xue J P, Ozkaynak H, et al. A probabilistic arsenic exposure assessment for children who contact CCA-treated playsets and decks, part I:Model methodology, variability results, and model evaluation[J]. Risk Analysis, 2006,26(2):515-531.
刘国华,盛迪晔.基于三维测量的人体表面积计算公式的比较[J]. 解剖学报, 2019,50(5):627-632. Liu G H, Sheng D Y. Comparison of human body surface area calculation formulas with three-dimensional anthropometry[J]. Acta Anatomica Sinica, 2019,50(5):627-632.
最高人民法院,最高人民检察院,公安部,等.人体损伤致残程度分级[M]. 北京:中国法制出版社, 2022:51-53. Supreme People's Court, Supreme People's Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, et al. Grading of human injury and disability[M]. Beijing:China Legal Publishing House, 2022:51-53.
T/CSES 40-2021多环芳烃环境健康风险评估技术规范[S]. T/CSES 40-2021 Technical specification for environmental health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons[S].
Nisbet I C T, Lagoy P K. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)[J]. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 1992,16(3):290-300.
Hussain M, Rae J, Gilman A, et al. Lifetime health risk assessment from exposure of recreational users to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons[J]. Archives of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 1998,35(3):527-531.
Zhang Y, Zheng H, Zhang L, et al. Fine particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at an urban site of Wuhan, central China:Characteristics, potential sources and cancer risks apportionment[J]. Environmental Pollution, 2019,246:319-327.
李大雁,齐晓宝,吴健,等.大型石化企业邻近区域大气沉降中多环芳烃赋存特征及源解析[J]. 环境科学, 2021,42(1):106-113. Li D Y, Qi X B, Wu J, et al. Distribution characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric deposition in areas adjacent to a large petrochemical enterprise[J]. Environmental Science, 2018,42(1):106-113.
Beko G, Morrison G, Weschler C J, et al. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing[J]. Indoor Air, 2017,27(2):427-433.
Gong M, Weschler C J, Zhang Y. Impact of clothing on dermal exposure to phthalates:observations and insights from sampling both skin and clothing[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2016,50(8):4350-4357.
Vaananen V, Hameila M, Kalliokoski P, et al. Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among road pavers[J]. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2005,49(2):167-178.
Q Z. Biomonitoring workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt during road paving[D]. USA, University of Cincinnati, 1997.
Thepanondh S, Varoonphan J, Sarutichart P, et al. Airborne volatile organic compounds and their potential health impact on the vicinity of petrochemical industrial complex[J]. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2010,214(1-4):83-92.
Hsu C Y, Chiang H C, Shie R H, et al. Ambient VOCs in residential areas near a large-scale petrochemical complex:Spatiotemporal variation, source apportionment and health risk[J]. Environmental Pollution, 2018,240:95-104.
邹昃灏,赵时真,田乐乐,等.珠江三角洲城市大气中多环芳烃的污染特征、来源解析和健康风险评估[J]. 地球化学, 2021,50(6):644-653. Zou Z H, Zhao S Z, Tian L L, et al. Pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk assessment of priority PAHs in the urban air of the Pearl River Delta[J]. Geochimica, 2021,50(6):644-653.
夏凌.石化区环境空气中多环芳烃的健康风险评估及其对周边居民内暴露的影响[D]. 广州:暨南大学, 2014. Xia L. Health riskassessment of atmospheric PAHs and its impact on internal exposurein the residents around a petrochemical area[D]. Guangzhou:Jinan University, 2014.
Sopian N A, Jalaludin J, Abu Bakar S, et al. Exposure to particulate PAHs on potential genotoxicity and cancer risk among school children living near the petrochemical industry[J]. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021,18(5):2575-2595.
Mo Z, Shao M, Lu S, et al. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2015,533:422-431.
Chen M-J, Lin C-H, Lai C-H, et al. Excess lifetime cancer risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from a petrochemical industrial complex[J]. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2016,16(8):1954-1966.
Ramirez N, Cuadras A, Rovira E, et al. Chronic risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere near the largest Mediterranean industrial site[J]. Environment International, 2012,39(1):200-209.
Shuai J, Kim S, Ryu H, et al. Health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds exposure near Daegu dyeing industrial complex in South Korea[J]. BMC Public Health, 2018,18(1):528.
Du W, Chen Y, Zhu X, et al. Wintertime air pollution and health risk assessment of inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural China[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2018,191:1-8.
张海东,孔祥华.宝鸡市冬季PM2.5中多环芳烃污染及健康风险评价[J]. 四川环境, 2020,39(3):51-58. Zhang H D, Kong X H. PAHs Pollution and health risk assessment of PM2.5 in Baoji City in winter[J]. Sichuan Environment, 2020,39(3):51-58.
Lovett C, Shirmohammadi F, Sowlat M H, et al. Commuting in Los Angeles:cancer and non-cancer health risks of roadway, light-rail and subway transit routes[J]. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2018,18(9):2363-2374.